Gastritis is a disease of the stomach that arises from inflammation of its mucosa and is accompanied by pain and various digestive disorders.
Causes of gastritis
Considering the wide variety of factors leading to the onset of the disease, acute gastritis is evoked, caused by a single exposure to stimuli that adversely affect the gastric mucosa, and chronic gastritis that occurs with prolonged effects of causative factors.
Acute gastritis occurs more often due to the use of poor quality food containing microbes or their toxins, less often – when chemical irritants enter the stomach (for example, too spicy spices or used for various purposes of technical fluids) and taking medications (more often salicylic acid and its derivatives). At the heart of its manifestations is acute inflammation of the mucous membrane. The main causes of chronic gastritis are:
- infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (for today it is considered one of the main causes of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer of duodenum)
- inadequate nutrition (irregular eating, prevalence of dry foods in the diet and quick intake of insufficiently chewed foods, abuse of spices and other irritants)
- alcohol abuse, prolonged and frequent smoking (almost always accompanied by chronic gastritis)
- Constant stress, neuroses and depressive disorders
- long-term use of certain medications (anti-inflammatory, antitumor, etc.)
- the violation of the immune system of the body with the formation of antibodies that attack their own cells of the gastric mucosa (in this case, chronic gastritis is a consequence of autoimmune disorders in the body of the patient)
It should be noted that the development of chronic gastritis often requires internal predisposing factors (hereditary predisposition, duodenogastric reflux, endocrine diseases, lack of vitamins and diseases of other organs of the gastrointestinal tract). At the heart of the manifestations of chronic gastritis there is a prolonged inflammation of the gastric mucosa with varying degrees of inflammation, followed by its reorganization and in severe cases by atrophy or replacement of the intestinal epithelium.
Signs and symptoms of gastritis
Acute gastritis usually begins with general weakness, nausea and multiple vomiting. Characterized by discomfort and spastic pain in the upper abdomen. For acute gastritis, diarrhea is not characteristic, and if there is, then mild. If the cause of the disease is an infection, a person is worried about fever. With severe vomiting associated with acute gastritis, the general weakness gradually progresses, dizziness appears, the skin and visible mucous pale, become dry. The tongue is then covered with a greyish-white or dirty-yellow coating, the patient is troubled by thirst and cramps in the muscles of the limbs. At a palpation of a stomach at the patient with an acute gastritis morbidity in the top departments always is revealed.
Chronic gastritis begins, as a rule, gradually and for a long time generally can not be manifested. Then there are aching pains, a feeling of heaviness and raspiraniya in the upper abdomen, worse after eating. Often chronic gastritis is accompanied by a decrease in appetite, periodic heartburn, an unpleasant taste in the mouth. Sometimes there is nausea and even vomiting. At the beginning of the development of chronic gastritis, signs caused by increased secretion of gastric juice (ulcerative pain and heartburn) predominate. Subsequently, due to the development of mucosal atrophy, the secretion of gastric juice decreases and atrophic gastritis is formed. He manifests aching pains and a feeling of heaviness and raspiraniya in the upper abdomen, a bad appetite and nausea, B12-deficiency anemia.
With prolonged course of chronic gastritis, the functions of other organs of the gastrointestinal tract may be disrupted, with the appearance of complications such as dyskinesia of bile ducts and chronic cholecystitis, chronic pancreatitis, chronic duodenitis. With chronic gastritis, there may be erosion and further ulcer disease, and in case of mucosal atrophy, the risk of stomach cancer increases.
Diagnosis of gastritis
Diagnosis of acute gastritis does not cause any difficulties and is carried out more often clinically, that is, on the basis of patient complaints and anamnesis of the disease. At the same time with chronic gastritis it is important to apply a complex of laboratory and instrumental examination to clarify the stage of the development of the disease and its possible complications.